Category Archives: Regiment

Cyril Frederick Johnston (9 May 1884 – 30 March 1950)

This is the sixth in the series on the men who rang in the officers’ peals of 1919, Johnston rang the seventh bell at Putney.  He is also listed on the Surrey Association roll of honour as a Croydon ringer.

A head and shoulders photo of a man with a large moustache wearing military uniform. He is standing just inside the left hand end of an arch over a church doorway.

Cyril Frederick Johnston taken from the photo of the band which rang at South Croydon on 3 May 1919 (he is back, second from left in the full photo)

Johnston probably needs the least introduction of all the members of the original band. He was born on 9 May 1884, the son of Arthur Anderson Johnston, partner in what was then the firm of Gillett, Bland & Johnston.  Arthur was the nephew of Arthur Anderson MP who founded P&O, and Arthur worked for P&O until the death of his uncle, when he bought into the then firm of Gillett and Bland.  Prior to his joining the firm had been involved only in clockmaking, but following the death of Bland in 1884, bell founding was added, initially purely for clock bells.

Cyril was educated at Whitgift School, Croydon (where he rose to colour sergeant in the school’s cadet corps), and then joined his father in the firm in 1902.  He was then formally apprenticed to his father for four years until 1907, when he became a partner.  By that time he had already been making initial experiments with tuning bells, and was increasingly involved in promoting projects of recasting or augmenting rings.  On the night of the 1911 census he was staying in Wimborne Minster, presumably in connection with the recasting, rehanging and augmentation of the ring there that year.

Following the outbreak of war he seems to have initially tried for a commission in the Motor Transport section of the Army Service Corps.  By the time he was actually gazetted to the Horse Transport section on 26 September 1914 he had already joined the 1st Public Schools’ Battalion (later to become 18th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers) as a private on 3 September – all ranks of these battalions had been pupils at public schools.  He was then commissioned as a second lieutenant in the same battalion on 27 October.  The four Public Schools Battalions trained around Epsom. On 2 June 1915 Johnston was promoted to lieutenant, on 26 June the battalion was formed into 98th Brigade with the other three Public Schools Battalions.  In July Johnston began to have health issues, and began to have extended periods of leave, this meant he did not go overseas with the battalion in November 1915, and was transferred to 28th Battalion, one of two reserve battalions for the Public Schools’ Battalions.

Three-quarter length photo portray of a moustached man in military uniform.  The cap and collar badges are the flaming grenade of the Royal Fusiliers

Johnston photographed as a Royal Fusiliers officer © IWM (HU 116434)

Eventually he was diagnosed with a hernia, which he blamed on ringing a 2 ton bell in 1913, he was operated on by the famous abdominal surgeon Sir Arbuthnot Lane on 13 December 1915.  Although the operation was a success, the amount of time he had spent on leave meant that he was required to relinquish his commission on 2 March 1916.  However, his recovery continued, and on 18 May 1916 he was recommissioned, now in the (socially) elite Grenadier Guards.  He joined the 3rd Battalion in France on 26 September 1916.  On 22 October his father died suddenly after playing golf at Mitcham Common.  He was granted leave to return home for the inquest and funeral but had returned to the front by the time of a Surrey Association meeting at Streatham in mid-November.

Johnston & Gillett had begun contributing to the war effort quite quickly, initially making ammunition boxes.  Their existing strengths in brass founding and making clocks were soon turned to the manufacture of artillery fuzes.  At some point after the death of Arthur Johnston, it was decided that Cyril could make a greater contribution to the war effort by leaving front line service as a subaltern, and being released to the Ministry of Munitions to return home and run the foundry’s war work.  Initially he remained a serving officer, receiving army pay and allowances, but in early 1918 he was one of a number of officers who were actually working in other roles to be demobilised (to save the army money).  The final formal relinquishment of this second commission did not come until 7 February 1921.


George Robert Kew (5 November 1898 – 24 April 1918†) and Harold William Kew (24 July 1900 – 1974)

George Robert Kew (Lives profile) was the eldest son (of three) of Charles Robert Kew and his wife Annie (nee Waters). According to the Surrey Association roll of honour the middle son, Harold William Kew also served in the First World War with the Royal Irish Rifles but no other records have been found to confirm this. However, given his date of birth it is highly likely that his overseas service would have been after the Armistice so he would not have qualified for any campaign medals, the records for which are the main surviving source for British Army personnel. Both are listed as being ringers at Burstow.

Charles Robert Kew and Annie Waters had married at Horsham, Surrey, on 27 April 1895. He was the son of John and Hannah Kew (both originally from Wiltshire). Censuses indicate that Charles was born in Brixton, but the family obviously moved out to the Burstow area as they can be found together in 1881 in Horley. Annie was from Reigate.

It was over three years after the marriage that George Robert was born, on 5 November 1898 at Horley. He was baptised at St Bartholomew’s, Horley on 12 February 1899, although even then their “abode” as listed in the baptismal register was Burstow. Harold William followed on 24 July 1900 in Burstow. He was presumably baptised at St Bartholomew’s, Burstow, but the pages for the several years are missing from the microfilmed version of the register that is available on Ancestry.

An ancient church with a wooden shingled tower and spire.

St Bartholomew’s, Burstow by Pete Chapman [CC BY-SA 2.0], via Wikimedia Commons

By the 1901 census the family’s address was given as, The Stables, Rede Hall, Burstow. Rede Hall being one of three manor houses around Burstow. Charles is listed as a coachman, George Robert is listed only as Robert, which may suggest that that was how he was known in the family.

The final member of the family, Edward, was born on 10 March 1903 and baptised on 7 June 1903 at Burstow. By 1911 the family were all still at The Stables, Rede Hall.

It is not clear when George Robert and Harold William learned to ring. No specific mention has been found in either Bell News or Ringing World. However, ringing in Burstow probably received a boost in 1912 when a new rector, the Revd Edward James Teesdale arrived from Suffolk in 1912. He and the gardener he brought with him, Charles Herbert Varo (who was killed in action in 1917), were both experienced ringers.

George Robert appears to have been a conscript, he would probably have been “deemed to have enlisted” immediately following his 18th birthday on 5 November 1916. However he may have spent a little time on reserve, as the war gratuity paid out after his death suggests active service from around February 1918. It seems he may have gone directly to a Bedfordshire Regiment battalion. Others around him on the medal roll have entries for service with a Training Reserve battalion or similar, but not George Robert. He seems to have been posted to 7th Battalion, Bedfordshire Regiment after his training. They were part of 54 Brigade in 18 Division.

They had already gone through quite a tough time in the early part of the German Spring Offensive. On 24 April the brigade was ordered to take part in a counter-attack designed to dislodge the Germans from Villers-Brettoneux. They were just south of the neighbouring village of Cachy, on the right of the Australians who would be attacking Villers-Brettoneux itself. In reality the force actually comprised 9th Battalion, London Regiment, (from 175 Brigade in 58 Division) and 7th Battalion, Royal West Kent (Queen’s Own) Regiment (from 53 Brigade). Unfortunately the battalions lost touch in the darkness. 7th Bedfordshires advanced well, initially but were then driven back, and took up positions in shell holes 500 yards west of the road that ran from Villers-Bretonneux to the Bois du Hangard (Hangard Wood). The survivors realised that many of the shell holes were actually held by Germans, and the Germans tried to encourage the Bedfords to surrender, however the battalion was still in touch with 13 Australian Brigade to the north and managed to hold on. Villers-Bretonneux was successfully retaken, coincidentally on the third ANZAC day, commemorating the landings at Gallipoli in 1915. The Bedfords’ war diary records that 70 other ranks were missing.

Annie Kew evidently hoped for more news than just that George Robert was “missing”. She contacted the Red Cross, the record card shows that he was with B Company, and that the family were now livign at Irwell Cottage, Redehall Road. Unusually it also records that he was 19 years old. Sadly there was no news, the Red Cross card shows that a “negatif envoyee” (ie no news) was sent on 14 September 1918. Annie must have been very glad that the Armistice had come by the time that Harold William would have been due to go overseas, though he may have spent time with the army of occupation in Germany.

Harold William Kew (28, Gardener) of Burstow married Dorothy Edith Dunford (29) on 1 April 1929 at Sutton Veny, Wiltshire by banns. The marriage was witnessed by Edward Kew and Doris Edith Dunford. They had one son, Ernest W Kew in 1939. When the 1939 register was compiled on 29 September they were living at 3 Coppingham Cottages, Balcombe. Harold was a jobbing gardener.

Edward Kew married Minnie L Streeter in the Reigate Registration District in 1931. It’s not clear if she was related to the Streeter family of ringers from Redhill. They had two daughters, Sheila P Kew in late 1932 and Marcia M in early 1936. By 1939 they were all living in Irwell Cottage, Redehall Road, along with the now widowed Charles Robert Kew and similarly Minnie’s widowed mother, Minnie M Streeter.

George William Waylen Honeyball (23 July 1883 – 16 August 1917†)

When this post goes live, the regular Wednesday Eucharist at St Mary’s, Putney, will just be starting. On this occasion the service will include a commemoration of George Honeyball, and will be followed by a brief talk about the rolls of honour of the Central Council for Church Bell Ringers and a peal. There is also a display at the foot of the tower which will remain in place until the end of August. Work on all this has meant that the centenaries of two men on the Surrey roll of honour, George Basil Edser (9 August) and Charles Herbert Varo (13 August) have so far gone unmarked on this blog, this will be rectified as soon as possible

George William Waylen Honeyball (See also Lives profile) was the first child of William Honeyball and Emma Harriet (nee Waylen – her middle name sometimes appears as Harriett, and her maiden name in various forms such as Wayland and even Wallen). According to a marginal note in the baptism register of St Agnes Kennington Park he was born on 23 July 1883 and his birth was registered in the St Saviour Registration District (Southwark) in the July-September quarter 1883. He does not appear on the Surrey Association Roll of Honour, despite the Putney band having been “in Union” with the association for many years. However Putney is the home tower of the author.

His parents were from the neighbouring Essex villages of Aldham and Copford, not far from Colchester. Their families were already connected as Emma’s aunt, Sarah Springett (or Springate), had married William’s uncle, Barnabas Honeyball. By 1881 Emma’s parents had moved to Ilford and were living at Mount Pleasant, Barking Lane (now Ilford Lane). Emma herself was in service (along with her elder sister, Eliza) at 2 Harcourt Road, Penge, Croydon, Surrey, England, working for Mrs Sarah B Rainier. Similarly William had already made the move to London, in 1881 he is recorded as a lodger at 77 Farmers Road, Newington with William Courtneidge and his wife Eliza. Courtneidge was a park constable/keeper. William’s brother George would also work for the London County Council Parks’ Department.

William and Emma married at St Mary’s, Great Ilford on 12 September 1882. Both gave their residence as Great Ilford at the time. William was a gardener, son of William Honeyball, labourer. Emma gave no occupation, she was the daughter of George Waylen, labourer. William signed his name, but Emma only made her mark.  The witnesses were William James and Emma’s sister, Eliza. George was baptised on 30 December 1883 when the family’s address was given as 63 Farmers Road, presumably just a few doors from where William was living in 1881.

1891 census

By 1891 the family were living in Putney, at 10 Upper Park Fields (the road has since been renamed and renumbered leaving this as 24 Coalecroft Road). William (36) is described as a gardener/domestic servant; Emma (34) has no occupation listed, neither does George (7, presumably he was at school). The household also contains Edward T I Honeyball (21), described as lodger, born Cheltenham, but presumably some sort of relation (although possibly there was an error by the enumerator as he’s not been traced in other records); and Peter Thomson (19), born Duddingston, Midlothian, Scotland, also a lodger. Both the lodgers are described as being gardeners at a nursery. The house was one of a group of workers’ cottages dating from the mid-19th century. At this time only the houses on the west of the road had been built, and the road itself was still amid fields and orchards, with Howard’s Lane marking the main boundary of development as shown on the Ordnance Survey map of 1893-1895 (digitised by the National Library of Scotland).  A general description of the properties on the road from the Valuation Office Survey field books from about 1911-1915 states: “old-fashioned stock brick cottage. Slated roof. 2 Storey, brickwork and pointing poor. Repair poor. Gd [floor]: 1 room, kitchen, scullery, WC, bathroom. 1st: 2 bedrooms”.

George may well have attended St Mary’s School, located in the nearby Charlwood Road. Unfortunately, the admission and discharge registers for the relevant period do not seem to have survived nor do the logbooks seem to mention him by name.

12 Coalecroft Road in 2017

12 Coalecroft Road, originally 4 Upper Park Fields, in 2017. The family home of the Honeyballs from about 1893 to 1914.

Electoral registers suggest that the family had moved just up the road to 4 Upper Park Fields by the time Ellen Elsie Waylen Honeyball was born on 3 August 1894.  The field books note that 4, 5 and 6 have no bathroom. It was owned by their neighbour at 3 Upper Park Fields (later 10 Upper Park Fields), J Dulley, a builder. The final page of the Valuation Office field book indicates that the house was sold on 4 July 1920 for £150. Land Registry data shows that the house last sold in late 2015 for just under £1.5 million (the estate agent’s details show it does now have a bathroom!).

1901 census

In 1901 the family were still at 4 Upper Park Fields (now 12 Coalecroft Road). William (46) is still a domestic gardener, Emma (44) has no occupation listed, George (17) is a coal order clerk and Ellen (6) is presumably at school. Also in the household is their lodger, Leon Jaquet (20) a market gardener from Switzerland.

The character of Putney was now rapidly changing. The fields around Upper Park Fields were now disappearing under houses. The houses on the eastern side of the street seem to have been completed by around 1904, at which point the numbering was changed to the usual odds and evens, with 4 becoming 12 (there were a couple of previously unnumbered houses toward the junction with Howard’s Lane).

1911 census, ringing, and marriage

In 1911, the family were still at what was now number 12 Upper Park Fields. William was still a gardener. George is described as a coal merchant’s clerk, and Ellen as a domestic nurse. It seems that with both children earning there was no longer any need to take in lodgers. It’s not clear who George was working for, but postal directories show two coal merchants based in small offices at Putney Station, Edwin A Cornwall, and Stratton, Gentry & Co Ltd.

It’s not clear exactly when George learnt to ring, the first report in the ringing newspapers that mentions him is of a quarter peal of Grandsire Triples rung on 24 September 1911 for Sunday service, and to mark the birthday of two of the band, T Bolton (the tower captain) and C F W Hunt (the conductor). Hunt and Skevington (also ringing) are more frequently associated with Hammersmith, and it seems they may have been teaching the band. This quarter peal is not marked as George’s first, so there is probably an earlier one that is proving elusive.

Next both George and his father William rang in another quarter peal of Grandsire Triples to mark the wedding of the Revd Laurence Rawdon Levett (the curate of Putney) to Mary E Patchett on 7 November 1911. This was the first quarter peal to be rung entirely by regular ringers at St Mary’s. Then, on Christmas Eve, George himself conducted a quarter peal of Grandsire Triples before a service, this was also the first quarter peal for S Jones.

1912 started in similar vein with quarter peals of Grandsire on Wednesday 7 February (only William was in this one rather than George) and Sunday 11 February (with both father and son). Then, on Monday 8 April, the band rang the first peal by Putney ringers (other peals had been rung at the church previously by visiting ringers). The method was again Grandsire Triples, this was the first peal for both George and William.

After that there was a bit of a lull until September when the local band rang another quarter peal of Grandsire for the wedding of the vicar’s (the Revd Canon Thurston Rivington) son, Reginald Thurston Rivington, to Nora Sedgwick. The wedding actually took place in Sherborn, Warwickshire, where Nora’s father was vicar. Canon Rivington had previously been vicar in two parishes in Warwick. Then for Harvest Festival on 22 September they branched out with a quarter peal of Plain Bob Major, a first for George and William and several others in the band. They finished 1912 with service touches of Stedman (with George ringing) and Bob Major (with William) on 22 December for evening service.

1913’s ringing really got going in March with another quarter of Bob Major on the evening of Easter Day (23 March), and again on 5 April (for a wedding). On 3 June George conducted another quarter peal of Grandsire, followed by another for service on 20 July which marked his birthday and that of his father. The dedication for this quarter also shows that William was secretary for the band. On Wednesday 30 July both were again in the band for a quarter of Bob Major for a wedding. On 12 October George again conducted Grandsire Triples with his father in the band. Then on 26 October both rang Bob Major again. On 9 November George rang the treble to a quarter peal of Stedman Triples, this is marked as the first in method for C Collis jun and H Whanslaw, but not for George, so again it seems at least one quarter peal is proving elusive.

Sadly Emma Harriett Honeyball died in early 1914, and was buried in Putney Vale Cemetery on 21 January 1914. Cemetery records show she was buried in Plot D2, Grave 215. It is listed as a “Class H” burial, not in “general ground” but a cemetery visit in 2017 showed no sign of headstone or other marker. She died (at home) at 12 Upper Parkfields.

Several rows of graves set among grass, with a variety of styles of headstones and other grave markers. In the background are a variety of trees.

Emma Harriett Honeyball (nee Waylen) was buried in Putney Vale Cemetery on 21 January 1914. There is no grave marker, the grave is in the second row of graves visible in the photo, to the right of the grave with a cross on three steps, directly in line with the granite topped grave in the foreground.

The first reported ringing in 1914 was a second peal on 13 April, this time conducted by Alfred Jones on his first attempt at conducting a peal. It was this peal that was marked by a peal board in the ringing room, sadly destroyed by the fire in the church in 1973. On 6 May both George and William rang in a quarter peal of Bob Major. This appears to be the last time father and son rang together. On 26 July George rang a quarter peal of Kent Treble Bob, his first in the method (and also that of 3 others in the band).

Black and white photo showing the interior of a church ringing room, two bell ropes are visible in the middle of the photo. The wall behind is part panelled, and above the panelling are two boards marking peals rung in the tower.

Photo of peal boards in the ringing chamber at St Mary’s Putney prior to the fire in 1973. The board on the left bears the names of George Honeyball and his father William and marks the 1914 peal rung by the local band.

The last known ringing by George was on 11 April 1915 when he rang two courses of Double Norwich Major for Sunday service. The influence of the war is perhaps visible in the very mixed group of ringers, F I Hairs usually associated with Clapham, though he was stationed at Roehampton with the Royal Naval Air Service, Elsie Bennett (who would later become Mrs Hairs – they would be the first couple to ring a peal on their wedding day), Sedley Collins of Fulham, and C J Matthews of St Martin in the Fields (though resident in Southfields and later reported as a Putney ringer when he joined up underage later in 1915).

On 5 July 1915 George married Bessie Julia Naylor in the magnificent parish church at Walpole St Peter (registered in the Wisbech Registration District). Parish records show that the banns were called at St Mary’s Putney on 13, 20 and 27 June, and show that the bride was from the parish of Walpole, Norfolk. The only Bessie Naylor recorded in the Wisbech district in the 1911 census was already 61. However, following the family back to the 1901 census shows a Julia Naylor in this household in Lynn Road, Walpole Highway, Norfolk, part of the parish of Walpole St Peter. In 1901 the family consisted of William (55), a carpenter, born Methwold, Norfolk; Bessie (50), born Exeter; and their daughters Julia (19); and Victoria (13), both born Walpole St Peter. Presumably Julia’s first name was also Bessie, but as her mother was called the same she used her middle name. By 1911, the younger daughter is recorded as Mildred, rather than Victoria, again presumably a case of using a middle name. Searching for Julia Naylor finds her working as a housemaid at 11 Briar Walk, Putney – just a few roads away from the Honeyballs in Upper Park Fields. Head of the household is Mary Blanche Alton (59), a widow with private means, born Norwich; also present are her daughter, Kathleen Mary Leonore Alton (30), single, born Putney; Mary’s half-sister Hannah Atkins (74), born Barnham Broom, Norwich; and Agnes Broomer (age unknown), cook, born Westcott, Surrey. The Valuation Office records show that the houses in Briar Walk were on a rather different scale to Upper Park Fields.
A substantial red brick house with carved stone around the windows

11 Briar Walk is the house in which Bessie Julia Naylor was working as a maid in 1911

War Service

Although George’s service record did not survive the Blitz in the Second World War (like so many), it turns out that in the case of the 31st Regimental District which included the East Surrey Regiment, and covered Putney, the recruitment registers still survive. Honeyball is listed, and the register shows that he attested on 7 December 1916 at Wandsworth. He was then 32 Years and 6 months old, weighed 120 lbs, was 5 foot 4 inches tall, with a 35 inch chest, which expanded by 3 inches. He was in call-up category 38 (this was determined by age and marital status), and medically he was rated A2 (fully fit, but untrained). The remarks column contains the address 148 Putney Bridge Road, presumably where he was living at the time he attested. He was initially posted to 3rd (Special Reserve) Battalion, this functioned as a training battalion and was based in Dover. The recruitment book does not show the regimental number, only a recruitment reference.

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission records show that his number with the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers was 41167 which allows us to identify his medal index card, which shows he was Private 31333, East Surrey Regiment, and Private 41167 Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers; and the associated medal rolls detailed by the index card as “B/102 B27 page 11462”, now in WO 329/1133. These show he served with 9th (Service) Battalion, East Surreys and 7 Battalion Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, unfortunately no further details are given on the index card or in the roll as to his dates of service or transfer between units. The war diaries of the 9th East Surreys are quite detailed, often giving complete summaries of men killed and wounded each month, but Honeyball does not seem to be mentioned by name. Nor is there any mention of men being transferred to the Inniskillings.

However, further examination of the medal roll shows a number of men with similar Inniskillings service numbers with prior service in the East Surreys, suggesting that a number of men were transferred at the same time. Service records of some of these men do survive, and suggest that Honeyball probably completed his training in mid-March and he was posted to 9th East Surreys, but after arrival at a Base Depot in France he was transferred to the Inniskilling, being posted to 7th Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers around 26 March 1917, and probably actually joining the battalion on 9 April. Their war diary shows drafts joining on 11 and 16 April.

The first few weeks with the battalion were spent largely in training behind the lines. Then in early May George received his first taste of front line service. On 9 May the battalion was due to be relieved but the German’s opened a heavy bombardment at the time the relief was due to take place. They were eventually able to extricate themselves by 2 am.

At 2 am on 29 May there was a gas alarm, but fortunately it proved to be false.

From 6-14 June the battalion took part in the highly successful Battle of Messines, 16th (Irish) Division (of which the battalion was part) captured Wytschaete. The remainder of June, and most of July was spent refitting and training. They moved back towards the front at the start of August, taking up positions at Square Farm on 6 August. On 8 August they suffered a heavy German bombardment. They moved out of the line on the night of 10/11 August, before returning to Square Farm on 14 August, ready to attack as part of the Battle of Langemarck on 16 August.

It was during that attack that George Honeyball was killed, somewhere in the area between Square Farm where they started, and Hill 37, or a little further east, which was the furthest point reached. They were forced to retire as the divisions either side had not progressed as well, leaving their flanks exposed.

After the war George Honeyball was remembered on a variety of memorials. In Putney itself he is on the roll of honour in St Mary’s Church which accompanies the cross outside. A memorial was also erected on an extension to Wimbledon Common that was bought by public subscription after the war. It was presumably due to his wife, and perhaps the ringers, that he was included on these memorials.

His father and sister also ensured he was on the Aldham War Memorial. On that memorial there are also two of his cousins, a second cousin, and a son of Elsie Honeyball’s first husband (who was much older than her) by his first marriage.

The Central Council for Church Bell Ringers also set up its own roll of honour, now held in the bell tower at St Paul’s Cathedral, and in 1919 there was a series of services around the country on 22 February to commemorate the ringers killed. The service for London was held at St Clement Danes and George Honeyball was among the list of 80 ringers read during the service who had been killed in the war.

He was also included on the Tyne Cot Memorial to the Missing opened in 1927. This lists those killed on or after 16 August 1917 in the Ypres area who have no known grave. He may also be commemorated in 1914-18 Book of Remembrance held in the East Surrey Regimental Chapel (Holy Trinity Chapel) in All Saints’ Kingston.


Bessie Honeyball continued to live in London, by 1939 she was living in Effie Place, Fulham, and her occupation is given as “Unpaid Domestic Duties” (she was presumably living on her widow’s pension). The 1939 Register (prepared as the Second World War started to assist in the distribution of ration cards etc) also shows her surname crossed through, and replaced with that of Rule. Marriage indices record the marriage of Alfred Stephen Rule and Bessie J Honeyball in the first quarter of 1945 in the Chelsea registration district. Stephen was a recent widow himself, in the 1939 Register he and his wife Laura were living on Trott Street, Battersea. Stephen (who was born in Australia) had served in the RFC and RAF during the First World War, his skills as a tailor and sailmaker probably having been put to use preparing the fabric used to cover the wings of early aircraft.

Elsie continued to run the Queen’s Head in Aldham for many years. She married twice and had two children.


The centenary was marked with a peal, and a display at the base of the tower. The display will remain in place until the end of August.
img_0507The display relating to George Honeyball and life in Putney before the war

Details of the peal of 5056 Yorkshire Surprise Major are on BellBoard.

A group of seven men and one woman standing in front of glass doors leading into St Mary's Putney Church. Some of the stained glass windows of the church are visible in the background.

The band who rang the commemorative peal at Putney on 16 August 2017.

Mustachioed man in military uniform, a sash running right to left over a metal breastplate.

William Frank Smith (1889-6 May 1917†)

William Frank Smith (Lives profile) was born in 1889 in Reigate. He was the second child of Frank Smith and Clementina (nee Trumble). They had married at St George in the East on 20 November 1886, probably Clementina’s home parish as censuses describe her as being born in Wapping. Frank was Reigate born and bred (some censuses record his birthplace as Leigh, a small village south west of Reigate), so it’s not clear how they met, though perhaps Clementina had been working in Reigate. In 1881 she was a house maid in Kensington. The marriage record shows that Frank could only make his mark, not sign, in the register. The later correspondence with the army after William’s death also seems to have been carried out only by Clementina. Frank was the son of John Smith, they were both farm labourers, Frank’s address is given only as Reigate. Clementina was the daughter of John Thomas Trumble, Inspector of Nuisances (the final word is unclear), and living at 227 Cable Street.

Their first child, Dorothy Clementina, was born in in 1887, her birth was registered in the third quarter in the Reigate registration district, and she was baptised at St Mark’s, Reigate on 3 July 1887. The family were then living on Nutley Lane, Reigate. William followed in 1889, the brith was registered in the third quarter, again in Reigate registration district. He was baptised at St Mark’s on 1 September 1889, the family were still living on Nutley Lane. Frank’s occupation is now given as carter. The family were still in Nutley Lane, at No 44, at the 1891 census on 5 April. The family also had a lodger, William Comben (36, no occupation stated).

Arthur Christian Smith was born later in 1891, registered in the 4th quarter in the Reigate registration district. He was baptised at St Mark’s on 13 December, the family were still living at 44 Nutley Lane. Frank is now recorded as a labourer. Sadly Arthur died aged just 2, and was buried in St Mary’s Churchyard on 21 February 1894. The family’s address was still Nutley Lane. Later that year Charles Henry was born on 28 August 1894, registered in the 4th quarter 1894 in the Reigate registration district. He was baptised in the parish of “Nutley Lane, St Mark’s” on 18 November 1894. This indicates that Charles at least was baptised in what’s now called St Philip’s, Reigate, then a proprietary chapel within the parish of St Mark’s (it is still not a full parish in its own right). It’s possible that the other children were also actually baptised there as St Philip’s had opened in 1863. William’s obituary also tells us that sang in the choir there as boy. The family’s address was then given as 30 York Road (now Yorke Road).

By the 1901 census (31 March) the family were at 42 Yorke Road. Frank is now recorded as a bricklayer’s labourer. Dorothy (13) has been apprenticed to a tailor; William and Charles are presumably still at school. There are two visitors with the family: Ada Walker (17), a housemaid born in Headington, Oxfordshire, and Doris M Hind (6), born in Norwood.

Aged 13, so in late 1902 or early 1903, William went to work as gardener for Philip Woolley at Broke House in Reigate Hill. Over the next few years William also joined the local men’s British Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachment. William’s obituary tells us he passed the certificate of proficiency seven times. He also joined the local miniature rifle club, apparently becoming a crack shot, and of course he also became a bellringer at the old parish church of St Mary’s.

It perhaps came as a bit of a surprise to the family when in early 1907 Clementina found she was pregnant again, 13 years after Charles Henry was born. Arnold John Victor was born on 26 September 1907, and baptised at St Mary’s on 10 November. The family were now living back on Nutley Lane, Frank is now recorded as a bricklayer.

The first definite record of William as a ringer is his first peal on 21 March 1908, when he rang the seventh to a peal of Grandsire Caters at St Mary’s. It is probable that he’d been ringing for some time before that. The following day he also rang in touches of Grandsire Triples and Caters for Sunday service. He also rang a quarter peal of Grandsire Triples on 16 November 1911, and another peal of Caters on 27 November 1909. The last of those was rung for the Sussex Association, he being one of three of the band proposed as members beforehand. He also went on the ringing outing to Hughenden and High Wycombe in July 1911. His obituary indicates he rang a total of four peals, but the other two have not yet been traced.

By the 1911 census on 2 April 1911 the family were living at 77 Nutley Lane. Frank (48) was a bricklayer’s labourer, Clementina (47) has no occupation given, so was presumably a housewife looking after Harold (3), Dorothy (23) was a ladies’ tailor, William (21) a gardener, Charles (16) was an errand boy for an ironmonger. They also had Sarah Mocock (11), a niece of the head of the household staying with them. As she was born in Wapping it seems likely she was the daughter of one of Clementina’s sisters.

On 2 July 1912 Dorothy Clementina married local policeman William Robert Prangnell at St Mary’s. Both were 25-years-old. Dorothy’s address was recorded as Holly Cottage, Nutley Lane, William’s as 14 South Albert Road, Reigate. William was the son of William Henry Prangnell (deceased), a maltster and brewer. A month later the newly-weds boarded the SS Corinthic in London, bound for Tasmania. William is recorded as a constable, so presumably he was going to join the force in Tasmania.

Alongside his main Red Cross work William also served as ambulance instructor to the Reigate Borough Fire Brigade (his father had been a fireman for some years). Over Whitsun 1914 (Whit Sunday – Pentecost was 31 May 1914) he travelled with a detachment from the brigade to Ivry-sur-Seine in France, and with his ambulance section took first place among the various fire brigades represented there following a display by the brigade under the command of Captain Rouse and Superintendent F Legg.

Just under a month later, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, and Europe spiralled into war. To start with William continued to work as a gardener, but later in 1914 The Ward Hospital opened as an auxiliary hospital on Reigate Hill and he took up a post as ward orderly. The hospital was named after Lt-Col John Ward, an MP and trade union leader (who had been a private soldier in his younger days), and run by his wife. Some sources suggest it had been a convalescent home for children before the war. Lt-Col Ward raised the 18th and 19th Battalions of the Middlesex Regiment (1st and 2nd Public Works Battalions) during the First World War.

Charles Henry, who was a motor driver, enlisted in the Army Service Corps in London on 10 February 1915, and arrived in France on 31 May 1915. The same day Charles enlisted William was presented with a clock by the members of the Voluntary Aid Detachment to mark his service with them. William carried on at the hospital, but the manpower situation was becoming acute and by the latter part of 1915 it was becoming increasingly clear that conscription would be introduced. William attested under the terms of the Derby Scheme in Reigate on 11 December 1915, and went onto Army Reserve B the following day, carrying on at the hospital for the time being. Meanwhile Charles was appointed acting lance corporal (unpaid) on 28 December 1915.

William was called up in February 1916 and reported to Regent’s Park Barracks on 9 February. After medicals and so on he was posted to the Royal Horse Guards on 11 February, becoming 2602 Trooper William Frank Smith. The ringers marked his departure (in absentia) by dedicating the service ringing on 17 February to himHe would then have trained at Windsor (where the depot of the Household Cavalry still is) and Knightsbridge Barracks. It was probably at some time during this phase of his training that the photo of him in uniform was taken.

Mustachioed man in military uniform, a sash running right to left over a metal breastplate.

Corpl W F Smith is pictured in the uniform of the Royal Horse Guards, complete with cuirass (breastplate), so this picture was probably taken on completion of his initial training, before he was transferred to the newly raised Household Battalion, an infantry unit formed from the reserves of the Household Cavalry not required for mounted duty in France

It was on 1 September 1916 that he was transferred to the newly raised Household Battalion, receiving the new regimental number 107. It was infantry that was needed on the Western Front, not heavy cavalry. The Household Cavalry had more than enough reserves, so some of the men were transferred to the infantry role, although by raising a new battalion, they maintained the traditions of the Household Cavalry (and the higher rate of pay that the cavalry received). This higher rate of pay seems to have been a bit of a bone of contention with the Foot Guards NCOs brought in to give them instruction in the finer points of infantry tactics, who gave the new battalion a bit of a rough time as they trained for their new role in Richmond Park.

The battalion was inspected by the King (who had had to approve all the details of the raising of the battalion) in Hyde Park on 2 November. This was preparation for their imminent departure for France. Members of the battalion attended a service at Brompton Parish Church on Sunday 5 November, then a route march in London on the Monday, photos in the barrack square on Tuesday, then to Southampton from Waterloo on 8 November, and thence overnight to Le Havre arriving early on 9 November. This first part of the battalion travelled on SS Mona’s Queen, while the remainder followed on SS Australind the following day. Once in France the battalion joined 10th Infantry Brigade in 4th Division. Initially they were some distance behind the lines in Abbeville, but in December they moved to the now quiet area of the Somme. Initially they were at the very southern end of the British Front, but in March moved a little further north. On 22 February 1917 Smith was promoted to Corporal. Given his leadership experience in the Red Cross, this is not surprising.

Although they had been in-and-out of the trenches throughout this time it was only in April 1917 when the battalion was committed to the Battle of Arras that received their real baptism of fire in large-scale actions. On 11 April 10th Brigade were tasked with taking Greenland Hill and Plouvain. Unfortunately they were spotted by German reconnaissance planes while forming up and heavily shelled. Nevertheless, the attack continued, but with little success, and heavy casualties. By the time they were pulled out of the line on 13 April the total casualties were 170. They had only a short respite before returning to the trenches on 16 April until relieved late on 20 April. For this period they were merely holding the line, rather than engaging in an attack, but still suffered further casualties. Then a slightly longer period out the line, but training for the next operation, before heading back to the trenches again on 30 April. The next attack came early on 3 May, with the German line between Roeux and the River Scarpe as their objective. Again there was little progress. A smaller scale operation was ordered for 6 May, which in the end was little more than a reconnaissance patrol, followed up by a grenade attack.

It was during this operation that Smith was killed in the early hours of 6 May 1917.

According to a letter written by a lieutenant of his company to Smith’s fiancée (who sadly is not named in the newspaper obituary which quotes the letter) he had been taking a message to the CO when he was shot by a sniper. The letter states:

He was a magnificent man, never flinching or wavering from any task, however difficult, and always performing it with willingness and patience.[…]He died as he would have wished, right up in the front line, and I can but offer my own sympathy and tell you how the regiment from the Colonel downwards feel his loss as a loss to the regiment and to himself. He was buried behind the lines and a cross put up over the grave, which is being tended with all possible care.

That grave is now II. C. 4. in Crump Trench British Cemetery, Fampoux. The battlefield cross has been replaced with a Commonwealth War Graves Commission headstone, bearing the family inscription “Peace, Perfect Peace”.

Following Smith’s death the Town Council sent their sympathies to the family following a council meeting on 25 June 1917, this was due to his work with the Fire Brigade. His was also one of the first set of 56 names inscribed on the war memorial erected at St Mark’s Reigate in November 1917. Sadly there would be several more to add before the war was actually over. This was the first permanent memorial in Reigate, and one of the earliest in the country.

The war had not finished with the Smith family. William Prangnell enlisted in the Australian Field Artillery on 7 September 1916. He was killed in action in Belgium on 12 September 1917. By the time he joined up he and Dorothy and moved from Tasmania to Melbourne. He had left the police and was working for Victoria Railways. They do not seem to have had any children. After the war Dorothy took the offer of a free passage back to the UK from the Australian government and returned to Reigate. Charles Henry Smith developed valvular heart disease and a goitre during his service in the ASC, and was discharged as no longer fit for war service on 21 March 1918.

Arthur Ernest Plowman (1898-1917†): missed from the roll

On the centenary of Ernest’s death I thought I’d reblog this, particularly as I’ve now developed his Lives profile and a few more sources have become available with the digitisation of material held by Sutton and Croydon Archives.

The Sutton material confirms that Arthur John Plowman and Kate Groves married at Beddington Parish Church on 19 December 1896. Arthur John was 24 and a packer, Kate was 21. Arthur John was the son of John Plowman (deceased), a gardener. Kate’s father was William Groves, a coachman. Arthur John was living at 6 Bridle Path, Beddington, while Kate’s address was 2 Railway Approach, Wallington. The next Sutton record is Ernest’s baptism, showing he was baptised at Beddington Parish Church on 5 June 1898, son of Arthur John and Kate Plowman who were then living in Wallington. Arthur John’s occupation is again given as packer.

The Croydon records are school records, I’ve not found Ernest’s, but there are two for Doris. She was first admitted to the Parish Church Infants School on 26 August 1907. The address of 4 Ainsworth Road matches other records for the family. Her date of birth is given as 24 April 1902. Her second school was the Parish Church Girls School, to which she was admitted on on 29 August 1910. The family address is again recorded as 4 Ainsworth Road, her father’s name is given as Jack Plowman. She is in a block recorded as transferring from the infant school. She is further marked as having transferred to Mitcham Road School following her last attendance on 6 September 1912. Date of Birth is again 24 April 1902, though mistranscribed as 24/06/02. It seems Doris never married and died in the Borough of Merton in the first quarter of 2002 – she has proved difficult to trace in the 1939 Register however.


Updated 10 May 2013: After the initial version of this page appeared on 9 May 2013 Andy Arnold reminded me of the Croydon Roll of Honour, which has filled in a few more details, and allowed me to correct a couple of details. The update has also allowed me to correct a number of typos.

Arthur Ernest Plowman was at least the third generation of his family to ring at Beddington. He had progressed far enough in ringing to take part in a quarter peal on Easter Day 1916 (23 April), but he had just turned 18 so was liable for conscription. He attested on 10 May 1916, though he may not have actually begun his training until later that year. He was posted to a Base Depot in France on 29 March 1917, just short of his 19th birthday. On 15 April he was posted to a frontline…

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An off-white headstone with a slightly curved top, a regimental badge above the details of Sydney Smith, with a cross below, and the inscription chosen by his family

Stanley Smith (14 January 1896 – 18 March 1917†), Mitcham

Stanley Smith (Lives profile) was the youngest child of William Shipp Smith and Ellen, nee Dench. His father was also a ringer, and quite a prolific conductor for the Surrey Association in its relatively early days, and was also a composer.

William and Ellen married at Stephen’s, Twickenham, on 15 September 1889. William was then 22 and a carpenter, Ellen was the same age. They were both living at 6 Sandycoombe Road, just a short distance from the church. Ellen must already have been heavily pregnant as their first child, William Thomas Smith, was born less than a month later, on 8 October 1889. By the time he was baptised at St Mary’s Twickenham (the original parish church) on the family were living at the Mission House. The 1891 census tells us that this was on Church Lane, right next to St Mary’s. As the next property listed on the census returns was the Queen’s Head (now the Barmy Arms), this suggests the Mission House was perhaps on the site now occupied by the Mary Wallace Theatre. Shortly before the census Ellen Ethel Smith had arrived on 1 February 1891, she was baptised on census day, 5 April 1891, both the baptismal record and census entry agreeing on the Mission House as the family’s residence. The census lists Ellen’s mother, Mary A Dench as head of the household. She was a 65-year-old widow and a laundress. Her son (Ellen’s brother), Henry, a 40-year-old painter was also living in the household, along with William (still a carpenter), Ellen, and the two children. Based on later censuses, the birthplaces of Henry and William appear to have been accidentally switched, this census indicates that Henry was born in Paulerspury, Northamptonshire, and William in Twickenham, it seems far more likely that William was born in Paulerspury and Henry in Twickenham like his mother and sister and the two children. There’s at least one report of William ringing while in Twickenham (Bell News, 9 August 1890, p241 reports W Smith of Twickenham joining various visiting Surrey ringers on 19 July). The very common surname makes an exhaustive search extremely time consuming. There were also bells in Paulerspury, so he could have learnt to ring there.

Some time in the next five years the family moved to Wimbledon. Stanley was born there on 14 January 1896, and baptised at Holy Trinity, South Wimbledon, on 22 February, the family’s address is recorded in the register as 121 Russell Road. Bell News suggests the move could have been as early as 1893 with reports then and in 1894 of W S Smith ringing at Wimbledon (18 July 1893, p201 reports ringing on 28 April 1893 and 14 May 1894, p113 reports ringing on various dates in April). Despite these early connections with the tower at Wimbledon, William seems to have been mostly associated with Mitcham, which had a strong band at this time, eventually becoming steeplekeeper. Since he was a carpenter he may also have been working for the ringing master there, J D Drewett, who ran a local building firm (he was also a local councillor and Master of the Surrey Association).

By 1901 the family seem to have moved just next door, to 123 Russell Road (or there may have been some renumbering). William was still a carpenter, no occupation is given for any of the other family members, they still have Ellen’s mother living with them too. There also seems to be a second family (the Robins) living in the same house (and the same can be seen for all the nearby houses), so 9 people in total in the property.

Sadly William Thomas Smith died in the first half of 1909, aged 19. I’ve not managed to find any details beyond the index entry for the death registration in the 2nd quarter of 1909 in the Kingston registration district. The 1911 census indicates that William and Ellen had had 3 children, one of whom had died, which was the first indication I found of the death of William Thomas. The family were then still at 123 Russell Road, now just the four of them (though there was still another household recorded at the same address too). William was still a carpenter, Ethel Ellen had become a female sorter in the Civil Service, possibly in the Saving Bank Department (“S Bank Dept” appears to be what’s recorded against her entry), Stanley was an assistant in a warehouse.

Stanley did not rush to the colours at the outbreak of war. He enlisted, or rather was conscripted, on 30 August 1916. He made his attestation at Wimbledon, he was now a timekeeper, 5’6″ tall, weighed 122 pounds, and had a 36″ chest (with 3″ of expansion). He joined 4th Battalion, East Surrey Regiment. It seems likely that he had some time on Army Reserve B awaiting his call-up proper. He managed to ring his first (and only) quarter peal at Mitcham on 17 September 1917. After his training with 4th Battalion, he joined 9th Battalion, East Surrey Regiment in France, probably in early 1917. This was the battalion in which the playwright, R C Sherriff, was an officer. Transcripts of his letters home, which provide some insight into what the battalion faced can be found on Roland Wales’ website under R C Sherriff’s Letters from France. It was a cold winter, with a lot of snow. By March though the battalion were based in Cité Colonne, near Loos, where the front line went through small villages, so the men could find shelter in what was left of the houses.

An off-white headstone with a slightly curved top, a regimental badge above the details of Sydney Smith, with a cross below, and the inscription chosen by his family

Stanley Smith’s grave in Bully-Grenay Communal Cemetery British Extension, courtesy of Alan Regin ©

Early 1917 is also described in the book The Journey’s End battalion, the 9th East Surrey in the Great War. Stanley seems to have been rather unlucky, the battalion suffered only 5 deaths in March 1917, 3 of them were on 18 March, Herbert Lewis Reynolds and William John Woodall being killed with him on that day and Fred Cyril Benham died of wounds the following day. No particular mention is made in the war diary, except that the four men are listed as casualties of the 18 March in the appendix for the month. The brief obituary published in The Ringing World on 13 April 1917 states that he was killed instantly by a shell (though such reports have to be taken with a pinch of salt, those writing home often wishing to spare the families full details). Stanley was buried in Bully-Grenay Communal Cemetery, British Extension with Reynolds and Woodall either side of him. After the war the family had the inscription “Thou gav’st thyself for me, give myself to thee” added to his headstone, the last two lines of the hymn “Thy Life was giv’n for me”, words by Frances Ridley Havergal.

The Mitcham ringers rang a half-muffled quarter peal of Stedman Triples in his memory on 1 April 1917, the band was A J Lambert 1, J D Drewett 2, C Dean 3, C W R Grimwood 4, A Calver 5, T Steers 6, W H Joiner (conductor) 7, J Currell 8. Calver and Joiner would also serve.

In 1919 Stanley was among the ringers commemorated at the National Ringers’ Memorial Service at St Clement Danes on 22 February. Then on Easter Day (20 April) the Mitcham ringers unveiled a memorial to the three Mitcham ringers killed in the ringing chamber at Mitcham. This was reported in The Ringing World:

On Easter Day, before the evening service at the Parish Church of St Peter and St Paul, Mitcham, the Rev C Aubrey Finch (Vicar), Alderman R M Chart, Dr T Cato Worsfold (churchwardens), Mr J D Drewett, Master, Surrey Association and Mitcham Society, and members of the Mitcham Society, together with relatiyes and friends, assembled in the church tower for the purpose of unveiliug and dedicating a marble tablet erected in the belfry to the sacred memory of those members of the society who fell in action during the war. The tablet which is the gift of Mr J D Drewett, whose son is among the fallen, is of an appropriate design and noble character, inscribed as follows –

“Sacred to the memory of members of the Mitcham Society and Surrey
Association of Change Ringers who fell in action in the Great War,
Douglas Walter Drewett, 1st Cameron Highlanders, killed in action, October 31st, 1918
Benjamin Arthur Morris, 4th Coldstream Guards, killed in action, November 28th, 1917
Stanley Smith, 9th East Surreys, killed in action, March 18th 1917
They died that we might live.
Rest in Peace.”

It is proposed to establish a fund in connection with the memorial, the money to be invested, and any interest that may accrue therefrom is to be used for the purpose of assisting any member of the Mitcham Society who may be in need of help.

Unfortunately this does not seem to have survived, on a visit a few years ago I noticed that there are still large brackets on the wall that could have supported a marble tablet. On 6 September Ethel Ellen married Richard Pethybridge, a widower with children and 13 years her senior. He is probably the same as the R Pethybridge ringing with her father in the earliest reports of William ringing at Wimbledon. Ethel does not seem to have had any children of her own.

The centenary of Stanley’s death was marked with a quarter peal of Yorkshire Surprise Major at Mitcham on 17 March 2017.

Harold Dennis (1894-7 November 1916†)

Harold Dennis (Lives profile) was another son of a ringer at Redhill, like the Streeter brothers. Harold was born in Farningham, Swanley, Kent in mid-1894, the second child of Edward Dennis and Susan Martha (neé Cousal). They had married at All Saints, Wandsworth on 24 January 1891 when both were living at 57 Cambourn (or Camborne) Road. He was 30 and a gardener and she was 26. They were still living at the same address when the census was taken at the end of March. The census shows that Edward was originally from Leigh in Surrey, while Susan was from Reading, Berkshire.

By the time that their first child was born in the first half of 1892 they had moved to Farningham, Swanley, Kent. The birth of Mabel Emily Dennis was registered in the Dartford registration district in the second quarter of 1892. Harold’s birth was also registered in that district in the third quarter of 1894.

The family then moved to Redhill before the birth (or at least the baptism) of Edith Dennis. She was baptised at St John’s Redhill on 6 December 1896, with the baptismal record noting that she was born on 17 September 1896. Edward is still recorded as a gardener. She was followed by Charles Edward Dennis on 4 February 1900 (baptised 15 April 1900). At the 1901 census the family were living at 11 Carter’s Row Cottages. The family was completed with the arrival of Herbert Dennis on 21 January 1903 (baptised 5 April 1903).

The family were still at 11 Carter’s Row Cottages at the 1911 census. Harold had now followed his father into work as a gardener. Mabel Emily had left the family home and was boarding at 10 Elm Road, East Sheen, and working as a teacher at a church elementary school. The rest of the children were still at school.

Edward features quite frequently in ringing reports from Redhill. Harold was elected to the Surrey Association on 24 July 1914, so had probably been ringing for a little while before that. In 1915 he rang the treble to two quarter peals of Grandsire Triples at Redhill. In the first the band was joined by Pte C A Hughes, a London ringing serving with 17th Battalion (County of London), London Regiment, then stationed nearby, but about to leave the district. In the second they were bolstered by F W Bailey, one of the Bailey brothers of Leiston, Suffolk, very well-known ringers, who was serving with 9th Battalion, Suffolk Regiment.

The amount of war gratuity paid out after Harold’s death indicates that he joined up around June 1915. The Ringing World of 9 July 1915 reports that he was with 3rd Battalion, The Queen’s. Army records show that he enlisted at Guildford. The battalion was then at Rochester, serving as both training unit and on home defence duties. Harold completed his training in October, and was posted to 8th Battalion in France on 13 October 1915. 8th Queen’s, along with the rest of 24th Infantry Division had suffered a real baptism of fire at Loos, with the battalion losing 439 men killed, including 12 officers, and similar (and even worse) losses in other battalions of the division. The battalion was in desperate need of reinforcements.

Harold would have been with the battalion when they suffered a German gas attack at Wulverghem in 1916, and then during the Battle of the Somme in the Battle of Delville Wood and the Battle of Guillemont. By November 1916 they had been moved back up to the old Loos battlefield, then relatively quiet. Rotating in and out of the trenches. On 7 November 1916 the war diary records “One casualty – killed – aerial dart”. These were very simple weapons, little more than steel rods, often dropped from aircraft. He was taken to the cemetery at Philosophe, Mazingarbe, for burial.

His death was recorded at the next AGM of the Surrey Association, and of course he is on the roll of honour of the Association, and the Central Council for Church Bell Ringers. The current band marked the centenary of his death with a quarter peal (appropriately of Grandsire Triples) at Redhill on Sunday 6 November 1916. They had also previously marked Albert Streeter’s death.